Dissecting James Madison’s words in the Constitutional debates #39….
“The difference between a federal and national government, as it relates to the operation of the government, is supposed to consist in this, that in the former the powers operate on the political bodies composing the Confederacy, in their political capacities; in the latter, on the individual citizens composing the nation, in their individual capacities”
The former in reference here is (the federal government), and what Mr. Madison is stating is that under a federal government, the powers operate on the political bodies which form the government.
Now one must ask this question……
What were the political bodies which formed the U.S. government in 1787?
The answer is….. THE STATES.
NOT TWO POLITICAL PARTIES WHICH HAD YET TO EXIST.
What is a State?
According to Johnson’s dictionary of the English language (1755) edition……
A State is…. “A MODE OF GOVERNMENT”
Each State/Mode of government, or “each political body” pre-existed the 1787/1789 U.S. CONstitution, and it was these “Political bodies” on which the federal system operated, and it was these political bodies that formed the union/confederacy, and these political bodies ON WHICH THE POWERS OPERATED.
THESE POLITICAL BODIES WERE THE STATE GOVERNMENTS, NOT POLITICAL PARTIES, BUT POLITICAL BODIES/STATE GOVERNMENTS.
In this federal system the powers operate on the political bodies which form the union/confederacy, NOT THE PEOPLE OF THE WHOLE, BUT RATHER THE POLITICAL BODIES, that being the State governments which united and formed the union/confederacy which was “The United States”.
Mr. Madison continues…..
“in the latter, on the individual citizens composing the nation, in their individual capacities.”
This latter to which Mr. Madison refers are the people of the whole, without regard to State government affiliation; This is the national government which exists today.
Are the powers on which the central government operate today The States/State government which formed the union?
Of course NOT, as the State governments have absolutely no power within the central government today, the State governments have no say in legislation, no department within the central body in which to utilize to protect their AUTHORITY, and no interaction between those political bodies, (the State governments) in the operation of the central government that was suppose to be a union of themselves.
Therefore there is NO FEDERAL SYSTEM, HENCE NO FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
What controls the central government within the occupiers system today are to political parties, TWO FACTIONS controlled by the international bankers under the “Federal Reserve” system, NO UNION OF STATES, and in operation it relies on a wholly national system, which consolidated the States into a “Nation”, rather than a union of States/nations.