“Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.”
It is vitally important that YOU read and understand this series of articles !
I think it important to begin with the foundational systems of America’s central body of government, gaining an understanding of the two different systems of government that have existed as a central body since 1781.
The Articles of Confederation operated under a wholly federal system: Under this system the people only had a voice in the central body through their State government which appointed a representative to represent their State “in congress assembled”.
James Madison stated in a letter to Edward Everett, concerning the new 1787 CONstitution….
August 28, 1830……
“It was formed, not by the Governments of the component States, as the Federal Govt. for which it was substituted was formed;”
James Madison is stating here the 1787/1789 CONstitution was NOT formed by the States as the Federal government for which it substituted.
So we see here that the Articles were a federal system of government.
To further understand this point, James Madison states in the 1787 CONstitutional debates……
“But it was not sufficient,” say the adversaries of the proposed (1787)Constitution, “for the convention to adhere to the republican form. They ought, with equal care, to have preserved the federal form, which regards the Union as a Confederacy of sovereign states; instead of which, they have framed a national government, which regards the Union as a consolidation of the States.” And it is asked by what authority this bold and radical innovation was undertaken? The handle which has been made of this objection requires that it should be examined with some precision.”
So we see that those who opposed the 1787 CONstitution wanted to preserve the federal form, which regarded the UNION as a Confederacy of sovereign States.
The federal form/system was operated wherein the State governments appointed a representative to represent their State in “Congress assembled” hence indirectly represented the citizens of that State. The people had NO direct representation in the central body, hence the people were more connected with their State government than with the central body. The Central body remained subordinate to the State governments, as should be without the people being directly involved in that central body.
Roger Sherman stated at the 1787 CONstitutional convention……
“The people should have as little to do as may be about the Government They want information and are constantly liable to be misled”
Ask yourself this question…..
Are the majority of the people today misled by the politicians within the two party’s that control the occupying government?
James Madison, also stated in the CONstitutional debates #39 concerning how the systems were to operate……
“The next relation is, to the sources from which he ordinary powers of government are to be derived. The House of Representatives will derive its powers from the people of America.
So far the government is national, not federal.”
The House of representatives is divided into simple districts without regard to State government affiliation, its members are elected directly by the people to represent the whole of the people without regard to State affiliation: This is the national form of government which DID NOT EXIST under the Articles of Confederation.
James Madison further stated in the CONstitutional debates #39 that…..
The Senate, on the other hand, will derive its powers from the States, as political and coequal societies; and these will be represented on the principle of equality in the Senate, as they now are in the existing Congress. So far the government is federal, not national.
So we see here that the Senate was to be the federal system that was brought over from the Articles of Confederation and cobbled together with this new addition of a national system. Under the original 1787/1789 CONstitution Article I section III…..
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
So we see that the Senators were APPOINTED by each State governments legislature to represent that States government within the central body, this was as it was under the Articles of Confederation wherein each State government appointed a representative to represent that States government within “Congress assembled”.
Since Lincoln’s war on federalism, the result was the eventual passage of the 17th amendment which was a result of Lincoln’s rebellion to the 1787/1789 U.S. CONstitutional system. Now the people elect the Senators making the Senate a national system as well as the House of representatives which is also a national system. Hence there is no longer a federal system, hence NO FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.
By James Everett, Sui Juris
All rights reserved, without prejudice.